Editing and Proofreading – Part
recall (from Part 1) that a thorough edit of a completed draft is tackled on “two levels:
- Macro level. The big picture.
- Micro level. The itty-bitty parts.
term editing may be used to encompass the whole process or, more specifically,
applied to the macro level. Proofreading is the final surface polish performed
once the big things have been set in concrete.”
but some writers seem to think proofreading is too tedious and below them. “Leave the spelling, grammar and punctuation
to the peasants who can’t write creatively,” we hear them preaching. It’s sad, but perhaps they’re
making noise to distract us from the fact they can’t spell, write grammatically or punctuate.
Is the “itty-bitty” of “nitty-gritty” importance?
writer, editor, and publisher observed:
will be wrong if you think that mistakes in your spelling, punctuation and grammar will be corrected by a copy editor. Copy
editors are not used as widely as in the past. You should learn to correct your own work.”1
The two major steps
in Proofreading involve important tools available to you. First, your computer’s
word processor has built-in error detection. Second, your own senses of sight and hearing become keener when they work together.
STEP ONE: Use your
computer for on-screen proofreading.
Your word processor
has sub-programs you can use to detect and highlight errors or automatically correct your work: in Microsoft Word, go to Tools,
Options, Spelling & Grammar. Some writers prefer to have these running as they type; others may switch them on specifically
for editing. The choice is yours.
You should consider
using the capacity to check spelling, grammar, punctuation, doubled words, passive voice, etc. However, these tools are not
foolproof – for example, see “Spelling errors” below.
Vocalise your story or essay - read it aloud. Use two of your senses together –
sight and hearing. A printout is best for this step.
There are three
variations. First, read your story straight through. This practice often reveals poor sentence structure, superfluous words
and phrases, and repetitions (words you repeat in close proximity or habitually throughout your work).
The second variation
is to mask the work. Leave visible only the line you’re reading. This technique helps avoid distractions and keeps your
attention on one line.
Third, try reading
the story or essay backward, word-by-word – that’ll make you concentrate!
Proofreading for SPAG (Spelling, Punctuation and Grammar)
Whether you use
on-screen checking or a printout, there are a variety of things to look for.
- Spelling errors. Okay you’ve run spell check, so now’s the time to check for the tricky
words and typos it missed. For example, your spelling may be wrong but the computer doesn’t always know that –
you could type “bare” when you mean “bear” or “pour” instead of “poor” or
“kin” when you mean “kind” or “litter” instead of “letter” or … . Got
words that can cause trouble are listed below.
· their (possessive form of they)
· there (in that place)
· they’re (contraction of they are)
· accept (a verb, meaning to receive or to admit to a group)
· except (usually a preposition, meaning but or only)
· who’s (contraction of who is or who has)
· whose (possessive form of who)
· its (possessive form of it)
· it’s (contraction of it is or it has)
· your (possessive form of you)
· you’re (contraction of you are)
· affect (usually a verb, meaning to influence)
· effect (usually a noun, meaning result)
· than (used in comparison)
· then (refers to a time in the past)
· were (form of the verb to be)
· we’re (contraction of we are)
· where (related to location or place)” 2
Did you notice the humble apostrophe featured
in the above list? Its omission is a frequent cause of spelling errors. – and not just with those mentioned. As well
as contractions, apostrophes can indicate possession.
To verify possessive case:
“1. Skim your paper, stopping only at those words which end in "s."
2. See whether or not each "s" word needs an apostrophe. If an apostrophe is needed,
you will be able to invert the word order and say "of" or "of the":
Punctuation. The comma is the main recalcitrant in the punctuation gang. If unsure of how to keep it
under it control, consult a grammar text or read the June 2005 issue of The Muse Marquee. Otherwise, consider these questions:
- Mary's hat
- the hat of Mary”3
“Have you ended every sentence
with a period, question mark, or exclamation point?
Are your thoughts within sentences
broken up correctly by commas for easier understanding?
Have you broken up series with commas?
Have you used a period after abbreviations?”4*
- Grammar and sentence structure. The things to look for here, include:
- subject/verb agreement (check tense and number).
- pronoun agreement (check gender and number).
- active/passive voice (see earlier chapter).
- repetition (check for close or frequent repetitions of words/phrases).
- superfluity (check for redundant words/phrases).
- dangling modifiers (avoid ambiguity by checking that words/phrases/clauses clearly connect to the
word they modify).
- capitalisation (if unsure, consult http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/capitals.htm ).
- fragmentary and run-on sentences (check that all sentences are complete and make sense).
- sentence length (vary length around the accepted average of 22 words).
- When in doubt, check! Whether it’s spelling, punctuation or grammar, never hesitate to resort
to a dictionary, thesaurus, grammar text or other authority. By taking the time and effort to verify something, you reinforce
it within your mind. It’s called research!
Develop a systematic
approach. Use the above advice and suggestions to develop your own organised approach to editing and proofreading. It should
be routine to use the computer tools and then print a copy for closer scrutiny.
Know you own typical errors.
aware of your own typical errors will simplify your system. Two things will happen. First, the more conscious you are of habitual
errors the more likely you are to avoid them. Second, if you still make the same errors, you can find them quicker. Duh!
Lastly, Call a Friend
Remember, in Part
1, you were advised to seek a friend’s help. Don’t forget that another head, two extra eyes, and two additional
ears, will be useful throughout the entire process of editing and proofreading.
* Australian English
does not require periods with abbreviations.
- http://www.writersservices.com/res/ml/r_legat_books.htm and http://www.writersservices.com/res/ml/r_factsheet_6.htm
Other Reference Material Sighted